Hall and others, “Blue Frontiers: Managing the Environmental Costs of Aquaculture” (Penang, Malaysia: The WorldFish Center, 2011), available at, The National Aquaculture Association, “Why Choose U.S. Farm Raised Products?”, available at, California Environmental Associates, “Offshore Finfish Aquaculture: Global Review and U.S. Prospects” (Lost Altos, CA: David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 2019), available at, Marcel Martinez-Porchas and Luis Rafael Martinez-Cordova, “World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives,”, National Aquaculture Act of 1980, Public Law 362, 96th Cong., 2nd sess. Many advocates for aquaculture see the sector as an opportunity to supply the nation with another source for resource-efficient4 protein without putting additional stress on wild stocks.5 In the United States, where shellfish aquaculture in state-managed waters is thriving, the current policy debate centers around if and how aquaculture should be expanded to federal waters. The number of stocks on the overfishing list dropped to an all-time low in 2019. It would have created a NMFS-run regulatory program for managing aquaculture in the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. We have rebuilt 47 stocks since 2000 as a result of our fishery management process. Labor abuses in seafood are shockingly common.80 American offshore aquaculture should promote quality jobs with living wages and product-traceability in domestic seafood production. Environmental groups,31 fishermen,32 and many congressional Democrats opposed the bill. General geographic and economic indicators, Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea (CCBSP), Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC), North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO), North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC), North Pacific Fisheries Commission (NPFC), Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO), Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO), The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission (WECAFC), /fishery/docs/DOCUMENT/fcp/en/FI_CP_US.pdf, Marine resources - Eastern Central Pacific, Marine resources - Western Central Atlantic, Marine resources - Western Central Pacific, Serra spanish mackerel - Coastal areas of Trinidad, European union : Danish fishing fleet : 2010, Northwest pacific : Bottom gillnet alfonsino and oreo fishery - high seas : 2009, Northwest pacific : Bottom longline fishery - high seas : 2009, Northwest pacific : Bottom trawl alfonsino and armourhead fishery - high seas : 2009, Northwest pacific : Pot deep-sea crabs fishery - high seas : 2009, Pacific islands region : Marine fisheries : 2009, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species, Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added, Hold down the shift key and drag to zoom to a particular region, United Nations Geospatial Information Section http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm, Imagery for continents and oceans reproduced from GEBCO, www.gebco.net. In the 111th Congress, former Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) introduced the National Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2009, which tried again to establish a regulatory framework for offshore aquaculture in America23 and was supported by a variety of stakeholders, including several environmental nongovernmental organizations24 and trade organizations.25 The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred later the same Congress, however, leading to a competing bill from former Sen. David Vitter (R-LA), titled the Research in Aquaculture Opportunity and Responsibility Act of 2010.26 This bill would have suspended all aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico for three years, which Sen. Vitter explained was in response to the difficulties that the oil spill posed to the Gulf’s ecosystems.27 Neither bill made it to a full chamber discussion or vote before the end of the 111th Congress.

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